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Table 2 Comprehensive list of ovum, chorion, and egg capsule dimensions as well as characteristics differentiated by location within the female reproductive tract—data on species distribution obtained from Hochberg et al., (1992, 2014) and Collins and Villanueva (2006), values given in millimeters

From: Novel insights into early life stages of finned octopods (Octopoda: Cirrata)

Taxon Distribution Ovary Proximal oviduct Distal oviduct Spawned Source
Cirroteuthidae       
 Cirroteuthis muelleri North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Arctic Ocean; (0)-500–4854 m 1.1–10.9, 10.4 × 6.3; smooth or light wavy markings; fleshy 10–11, 11.2 × 8.8 to 12 × 9; smooth; brown Reinhardt and Prosch (1846), Voss and Pearcy (1990), Nesis (2001), Knudsen and Roeleveld (2002)
 Cirrothauma magna Atlantic and Indian Ocean; 1300–3351 m 1–14.5, 11.3 × 8; smooth 12.5 Guerra et al. (1998), Collins et al. (2001)
 Cirrothauma murrayi Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Ocean; 2430–4850 m 9 11.3 × 8.2 13.8 × 8.4 to 14 × 8.9; rudiment of egg stalk; brown - Aldred et al. (1983), Ziegler and Miller (2022a)
 Stauroteuthis gilchristi South Atlantic Ocean; 900–2604 m 3–9.5 Collins and Henriques (2000)
 Stauroteuthis syrtensis North Atlantic Ocean; 450–4000 m 1–9.5; smooth 11 × 6.5 11 × 6 to 11 × 7; ends smooth, sides with numerous regular roughend elevated ribs; dark reddish or brown Verrill (1882), Robson (1932), Collins and Henriques (2000)
Grimpoteuthitidae
 Cryptoteuthis brevibracchiata Northeastern Atlantic Ocean; 2274–2300 m Collins (2004)
 Grimpoteuthis abyssicola Southwestern Pacific Ocean; 3154–3180 m 17.8 × 7; 19–20 longitudinal striations O'Shea (1999)
 Grimpoteuthis boylei Northeastern Atlantic Ocean; 4190–4848 m 3 × 2 to 15 × 9 16 × 10; longitudinal striations 18 × 11, 20 × 12 Collins (2003)
 Grimpoteuthis challengeri Northeastern Atlantic Ocean; 4800–4850 m 5 × 2 to 12 × 7 13 × 8; smooth Collins (2003)
 Grimpoteuthis discoveryi Northeastern Atlantic Ocean; 2600–4870 m 2 × 1 to 8 × 4 10–11; smooth Collins (2003)
 Grimpoteuthis innominata Southwestern Pacific Ocean; 1705–2002 m 3 × 1.7 O'Shea (1999)
 Grimpoteuthis meangensis Southwestern Pacific Ocean; 280–1050 m 12.2 × 6; 18 longitudinal striations Robson (1932)
 Grimpoteuthis wuelkeri Northeastern Atlantic Ocean; 1550–2056 m 11 × 5 to 15 × 9 14 Collins (2003)
 Grimpoteuthis sp. Western Atlantic Ocean; 2880–3213 m 18; barrel-shaped with longitudinal striations (found free in mantle cavity) Lipka (1975)
 Grimpoteuthis sp. Western Atlantic Ocean; 2432–3018 m 12.5 × 7 Voss (1955), O'Shea (1999)
 Grimpoteuthis sp. Northwestern Atlantic Ocean; 1975 m 15 × 12 20 × 14; rough and uneven; covered with coat of greenish mud Verrill (1885)
 Grimpoteuthis sp. Northwestern Atlantic Ocean; 1975 m 16 × 11 26 × 17; rough and uneven; covered with coat of greenish mud Verrill (1885)
 Grimpoteuthis sp. Northwestern Atlantic Ocean; 1965 m 19 × 14; rugose ornamentation; muddy brown Shea et al. (2018)
 Luteuthis shuishi Western Pacific Ocean; 754–767 m 17.8 × 11; smooth (found free in mantle cavity) O'Shea and Lu (2002)
Cirroctopodidae       
 Cirroctopus antarctica Southern Ocean; 509–804 m 16 × 12; 14–16 longitudinal striations Kubodera and Okutani (1986)
 Cirroctopus glacialis Southern Ocean; 333–1208 m Up to 16 × 10; longitudinal striations 16 × 10; smooth 21–22 × 14 22 × 14; irregular; beige Vecchione et al. (1998), Rauschert and Arntz (2015), Ziegler and Miller (2022c)
 Cirroctopus hochbergi Southwestern Pacific Ocean; 700–1350 m - 11 × 8.5, 13 × 9.5; 16–18 very faint longitudinal striations 15.8 × 10; secreted egg capsule linked to another egg by long, thin stalk 8.5 × 5.4; irregular; khaki; 12 × 8; relatively smooth; khaki; 13.2 × 8.9; circular ridges; khaki; 14 × 8.2; irregular; khaki; 14.3 × 8.9 longitudinal ridges and circular lines; tan; 15.8 × 10; smooth; tan (all found free in mantle cavity) O'Shea (1999)
Opisthoteuthidae       
 Opisthoteuthis agassizii Northwestern Atlantic Ocean; 227–1935 m 6 × 2.8 to 10.6 × 7.7; smooth when small, later with longitudinal striations 10.3 × 6.4; smooth; opaque 10.2 × 5.1, 14.3 × 8.9; smooth or with ornamentation; opaque Cupka (1970), Villanueva et al. (2002), Collins (2005)
 Opisthoteuthis albatrossi North Pacific Ocean; 457–3400 m 10 × 7 13 Sasaki (1929), Katugin et al. (2010)
 Opisthoteuthis borealis North Atlantic Ocean; 957–1321 m 3–12; smooth 11–12; smooth Collins (2005)
 Opisthoteuthis bruuni Southeastern Pacific Ocean; 250–512 m 0.7 × 0.4 to 10 × 6; smooth up to 7, then with longitudinal striations Pardo-Gandarillas et al. (2021)
 Opisthoteuthis californiana Northeastern Pacific Ocean; 125–1600 m 9 × 5 to 11 × 6 10 × 5 Berry (1949, 1952), Pereyra (1965)
 Opisthoteuthis calypso Eastern Atlantic Ocean; 365–2208 m 0.2 × 0.2 to 6.9 × 4 to 7.5; spherical up to 1, then oval; smooth up to 2, then reticulated, later folded from 3 onwards with 23–30 longitudinal striations; opaque 5.1 × 3.6 to 8 × 5; smooth; pinkish 7 × 4 to 10 × 5.4; highly irregular, sometimes with a rudimentary egg stalk; opaque Villanueva (1992), Villanueva et al. (2002), Collins (2005), Cuccu et al. (2009), Sartor and Belcari (2009)
 Opisthoteuthis chathamensis Southwestern Pacific Ocean; 900–1438 m 7.9 × 4; longitudinal striations 8.3 × 5.6; egg capsule deposited around chorion in spiral formation, dense pimple-like processes and longitudinal furrows and weak circular lines (found free in mantle cavity) O'Shea (1999)
 Opisthoteuthis depressa Northwestern Pacific Ocean; 130–1100 m Up to 3 × 2; smooth or with longitudinal striations, but yet without chorion 9 × 5 to 10 × 7; smooth; white or brown Meyer (1906), Komi et al. (2018)
 Opisthoteuthis dongshaensis Western Pacific Ocean; 660–1015 m 3 × 2 to 8 × 4; smooth, later with 18–20 longitudinal striations; white, later beige 7 × 4; longitudinal striations; light honey-colored 8 × 5; longitudinal striations; light honey-colored Lu (2010)
 Opisthoteuthis hardyi South Atlantic Ocean; 630–1390 m 0.3–12; smooth 10.8 × 6 Collins et al. (2009)
 Opisthoteuthis massyae Eastern Atlantic Ocean; 600–1450 m 0.2–12; chorion forms at 10; 24–28 longitudinal striations; yellow 9.3 × 4.8 to 10.4 × 5, 10.3 × 6.8; smooth or with faint longitudinal striations; pinkish 9 × 4.8 to 12 × 7; longitudinal striations, irregular structuring, rudimentary egg stalk Sanchez and Guerra (1989), Villanueva (1992), Daly et al. (1998), Boyle and Daly (2000), Villanueva et al. (2002), Collins (2005)
 Opisthoteuthis mero Southwestern Pacific Ocean; 360–1000 m 7.2 × 4.9; 15–18; smooth, later with longitudinal striations 7.2 × 4.9; longitudinal striations 7.2 × 4.9 O'Shea (1999)
 Opisthoteuthis sp. Northeastern Pacific Ocean 7 × 4.8; 16–18 longitudinal striations Hochberg et al. (1992)